Vidéo : Enseignement dans la langue maternelle : mode d’emploi

  • Dans les pays en développement, la langue officielle est souvent celle employée comme langue d’instruction dans les écoles primaires.
  • Les élèves dont la première langue n’est pas la langue officielle se heurtent souvent à des difficultés pour comprendre les contenus enseignés en classe.
  • L’enseignement dans la langue maternelle dans les petites classes peut permettre d’établir des bases solides à partir desquelles les élèves peuvent assimiler des concepts scolaires ainsi que la langue officielle.
  • Les études à ce sujet ont constaté que l’enseignement en langue maternelle dans les petites classes était très efficace dans les pays développés ; de nouvelles données probantes indiquent qu’il est également très prometteur dans les pays en développement.

Veillez à ce que du matériel didactique et pédagogique soit disponible dans la langue maternelle.

Il est souhaitable que les supports en langue maternelle (tels que les plans de cours, les abécédaires ou les fiches de travail des élèves) couvrent les mêmes contenus que le curriculum normal et mettent également l’accent sur le développement des compétences linguistiques. Le matériel doit être amusant, interactif, et puiser dans des contenus adaptés aux réalités locales si possible.

Trainer's Guide for the Multi-Strategy Economy Model

A step-by-step guide to creating mother-tongue primers; also includes instructions on training teachers to use the primers in their classrooms and details on suggested activities for teaching children literacy skills in the mother-tongue.
SIL International, 2002
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Guide Elementaire Bilingue

This is an example of a teacher guide developed by ARED for teaching a bilingual curriculum (using French and the local language, Wolof or Pulaar, depending on the region).
ARED Senegal
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Jolly Phonics

This website gives guidance on steps to teach the key components of early literacy including teaching letter sounds, letter formations, blending sounds, identifying sounds in words, and reading tricky words. The site also contains free worksheets. Early literacy concepts are taught with English materials, but practitioners have used them as guides for developing similar materials in the mother-tongue.
Jolly Phonics
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Teacher Guide: Weather: English (P1, Term 2)

This is an example of a teacher guide used in the Northern Uganda Literacy Program, which helps students to improve literacy skills through basing instruction in the mother tongue.
Mango Tree Uganda
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5 Big Ideas of Literacy

This website provides information on the five “big ideas” in teaching beginning reading: phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, accuracy and fluency with text, vocabulary, and comprehension. These concepts are explained with examples and instructional tips in English, but can be applied to other languages when practitioners are developing mother-tongue instructional materials.
University of Oregon
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Paul Nation

The research of Paul Nation, Emeritus Professor at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand, provides guidance on developing second-language courses and course material.
Victoria University of Wellington
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Worlds in the Making

Explore a case study of Worlds in the Making, which is developing and testing tri-lingual primers for students in Punjab, Pakistan.
Simorgh Pakistan
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Northern Uganda Literacy Program

Explore a case study of the Northern Uganda Literacy Program, which works to provide effective and affordable language instruction resources and community support for local language learning in Uganda and creates teaching and learning materials (e.g. primers and readers) in multiple languages.
Mango Tree
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Improving the Quality of Mother Tongue-based Literacy and Learning: Case Studies from Asia, Africa, and South America

Multiple case studies describe the process of creating mother-tongue teaching and learning materials. Pages 184-186 review the lessons learned from these case studies.
UNESCO
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Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia

Case studies highlight challenges related to creating teaching and learning materials for minority languages and considerations to take into account when doing so.
UNESCO
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First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Priority Language Contexts in Asia

This report provides guidelines for developing teaching and learning materials for mother-tongue literacy programs, such as types of literature to consider, ways to encourage local development of materials, and examples of projects that have developed their own materials.
UNESCO, 2005
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Supporting and Assessing Reading and Writing

This is a teacher's guide that provides examples of activities for students to practice reading and writing in local languages and in English, and offers tips on assessment.
Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA)
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Manuel du formateur pour l’usage de la F.A.M.E.

Manuel du formateur pour l’usage de la Forme d’Alphabétisation Multi-stratégie Économique.
SIL International
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Note de sensibilisation et d’orientation étayée par les faits et fondée sur la pratique

Pourquoi et comment l’Afrique doit investir dans les langues africaines et l’enseignement multilingue.
UNESCO
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Veillez à ce que les élèves puissent disposer de livres d’histoires dans leur langue maternelle.

Les enfants ont généralement un accès limité aux ouvrages et livres dans leur langue maternelle. Il est préconisé que les agents de mise en œuvre collaborent avec les éditeurs et les membres de la communauté pour réunir une collection de livres d’histoires et d’autres lectures pour aider les élèves à développer des capacités de lecture et d’écriture dans leur langue maternelle.

Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education

Pages 20-21 of the "Booklet for Program Implementers" section detail the importance of providing mother tongue reading materials.
UNESCO, 2007
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Worldreader Mobile - Children's Books

Mobile access on basic phones and smart phones to free children's reading content, organized by age. Mostly English books, with some titles in Swahili, Spanish, and French. Also includes parents and teachers sections with read aloud books.
Worldreader
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Kidilangues

Retrouvez ici des jeux educatifs pour s'initier aux langues tout en s'amusant.
Kidilangues.fr
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Assurez-vous que les enseignants possèdent les aptitudes, la motivation et le soutien leur permettant d’enseigner dans la langue maternelle.

Il est préconisé que les agents de mise en œuvre procurent une formation adéquate aux enseignants afin de s’assurer qu’ils possèdent les compétences linguistiques nécessaires pour enseigner dans la langue maternelle des enfants, et qu’ils reçoivent un appui continu. Il est également important que les enseignants comprennent la valeur de l’instruction dans la langue maternelle et qu’ils se présentent comme des champions actifs de cette démarche.

Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia

Multiple case studies highlight the importance of training teachers to ensure they are well-versed in the language and needs of the community.
UNESCO
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Supporting and Assessing Reading and Writing

This is a teacher's guide that provides examples of activities for students to practice reading and writing in local languages and in English, and offers tips on assessment.
Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA)
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Ways toward Fluency and Accuracy

This guide provides examples of activities students for students that can help them learn a second language.
Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA)
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Teacher Education Curriculum Supplement for Pre-Service Teacher Candidates Expecting to Work in Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) Programs

This guide discusses the topics that should be included in a course to best prepare teachers to teach in the mother tongue.
SIL International
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Teacher Education for Mother Tongue-Based Education Programs

This guide discusses the kinds of training teachers should go through in order to provide effective instruction in the mother tongue.
SIL International
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First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Priority Language Contexts in Asia

This report provides a summary of a workshop for community-based literacy programs utilizing the mother tongue, including tips on developing teaching/learning materials, on training facilitators, and on evaluating the program.
UNESCO (2005)
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CARAP – Un Kit de Formation

Le kit de formation en ligne est destiné aux enseignants et formateurs d'enseignants qui désirent se former en autonomie aux approches plurielles et à l'utilisation des matériaux proposés par le CARAP.
Conseil de l'Europe
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Éducation interculturelle et diversité linguistique

Éducation interculturelle et diversité linguistique
Françoise Armand et Érica Maraillet
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Ouverture aux langues à l’école: Vers des compétences plurilingues et pluriculturelles

Le document « Ouverture aux langues à l'école » se situe dans le prolongement des options prises dans le cadre du Plan d’action pour le réajustement de l'enseignement des langues (mars 2007), dont le but principal est une meilleure compréhension des langues et une motivation accrue pour leur apprentissage.
Ministère de l'Éducation nationale et de la Formation professionnelle
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Videos Bilinguisme

Nombreux sont les parents et les professionnels qui se posent des questions autour de la transmission de la langue maternelle, du bilinguisme et de l’éducation au plurilinguisme.
D'Une Lange A L'Autre DULALA
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Guide de formation des facilitateurs en alphabétisation et en éducation non formelle en Afrique

Guide de formation des facilitateurs en alphabétisation et en éducation non formelle en Afrique
UNESCO
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Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP)

Learn about the Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), which provides support to the Ugandan Ministry of Education and Sport in implementing mother tongue instruction for grades 1-3 and invests in teacher training to support teachers who teach in the mother tongue.
Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP)
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Assurez-vous la coopération, la compréhension et la validation participative de la communauté.

Il est possible que les parents et les membres de la communauté éprouvent des réticences vis-à-vis de l’enseignement dans la langue maternelle, parce que l'aisance dans la langue officielle est souvent considérée comme un facteur favorisant l’ascension sociale. Il est nécessaire que les praticiens fassent clairement connaître les avantages de l’enseignement dans la langue maternelle et qu’ils fassent participer la communauté à des aspects spécifiques du programme (par ex., conception, observation, évaluation).

Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education

Pages 20-21 of the "Booklet for Program Implementers" section detail the importance of providing mother tongue reading materials.
UNESCO, 2007
View

Northern Uganda Literacy Program

Explore a case study of the Northern Uganda Literacy Program, which works to provide effective and affordable language instruction resources and community support for local language learning in Uganda and creates teaching and learning materials (e.g. primers and readers) in multiple languages.
Mango Tree
View

Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP)

Learn about the Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP), which provides support to the Ugandan Ministry of Education and Sport in implementing mother tongue instruction for grades 1-3 and invests in teacher training to support teachers who teach in the mother tongue.
Uganda School Health and Reading Program (SHRP)
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Improving the Quality of Mother Tongue-based Literacy and Learning: Case Studies from Asia, Africa, and South America

This compilation of case studies from Asia, Africa, and South America identifies common themes among successful programs and emphasizes the importance of developing mother tongue materials and appropriate instructional methods.
UNESCO (2008)
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Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia

This compilation of seven case studies of mother tongue-based literacy programs in Asia identifies the impact of the projects, common challenges faced, and recommendations based on the experiences.
UNESCO (2007)
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First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Priority Language Contexts in Asia

This report provides a summary of a workshop for community-based literacy programs utilizing the mother tongue, including tips on developing teaching/learning materials, on training facilitators, and on evaluating the program.
UNESCO (2005)
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Implication des Parents dans l’Éducation Plurilingue et Interculturelle (IPEPI)

Le site d'Implication des Parents dans l’Éducation Plurilingue et Interculturelle (IPEPI) a pour but de diffuser des connaissances relatives aux bénéfices d'une éducation plurilingue et interculturelle conduite en partenariat avec les parents.
Implication des Parents dans l’Éducation Plurilingue et Interculturelle (IPEPI)
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Note de sensibilisation et d’orientation étayée par les faits et fondée sur la pratique

Pourquoi et comment l’Afrique doit investir dans les langues africaines et l’enseignement multilingue.
UNESCO
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La langue maternelle; ça compte: La langue locale, clé d’un apprentissage efficace

La langue locale, clé d’un apprentissage efficace
UNESCO
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Encouragez l’existence d’un environnement politique favorable et faites de la sensibilisation aux niveaux local, infra-national et national.

Un contexte politique favorable - au niveau local, infra-national et national - est essentiel pour assurer l’adoption par la communauté de l’instruction dans la langue maternelle. Il convient que les praticiens fassent connaître aux décideurs politiques les avantages et l’intérêt de l’enseignement dans la langue maternelle et qu’ils s’assurent la participation des pouvoirs publics au programme dans la mesure du possible.

Advocacy Kit for Promoting Multilingual Education

Pages 20-21 of the "Booklet for Program Implementers" section detail the importance of providing mother tongue reading materials.
UNESCO, 2007
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ARED - Associates in Research and Education for Development

ARED implemented a bilingual education program in primary schools in Senegal.
ARED Senegal

Mother Tongue Matters: Local Language as a Key to Effective Learning

This report studies four case studies (Mali, Papua New Guinea, Peru, United States) of mother tongue-based bilingual education programs, identifying their potential to help improve children’s learning outcomes and challenges to successful implementation of such programs.
UNESCO (2008)
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La langue maternelle; ça compte: La langue locale, clé d’un apprentissage efficace

La langue locale, clé d’un apprentissage efficace
UNESCO
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Guide de politique sur l’intégration des langues et cultures africaines dans les systèmes éducatifs

Guide de politique sur l’intégration des langues et cultures africaines dans les systèmes éducatifs
UNESCO
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Rwanda : la guerre des langues n’aura pas lieu, il n’y aura que des victimes

L’adoption par les universités scandinaves de l’anglais comme «lingua academica» a emporté le triple AAA du danois qui ne compte plus parmi les langues internationales.
Université Nationale du Rwanda, Rwanda
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Le cas échéant, élaborez une orthographe acceptable aux yeux de la communauté et des pouvoirs publics.

Il est possible qu’une langue locale ne compte pas de système d’écriture organisé. Le processus d’élaboration d’un système d’écriture peut prendre un certain temps (qui suppose de développer des enquêtes sur les langues, de conduire des analyses et de tester des systèmes d’évaluation) et doit être mené en collaboration étroite avec les conseils de langues locales.

Improving the Quality of Mother Tongue-based Literacy and Learning: Case Studies from Asia, Africa, and South America

This compilation of case studies from Asia, Africa, and South America identifies common themes among successful programs and emphasizes the importance of developing mother tongue materials and appropriate instructional methods.
UNESCO (2008)
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Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia

This compilation of seven case studies of mother tongue-based literacy programs in Asia identifies the impact of the projects, common challenges faced, and recommendations based on the experiences.
UNESCO (2007)
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First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Priority Language Contexts in Asia

This report provides a summary of a workshop for community-based literacy programs utilizing the mother tongue, including tips on developing teaching/learning materials, on training facilitators, and on evaluating the program.
UNESCO (2005)
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Études de cas présentées

Ces études de cas fournissent des exemples de l’utilisation de la langue maternelle dans la pratique. Cliquez sur les liens ci-dessous pour des explications détaillées concernant l’enseignement dans la langue maternelle dans les organisations présentées.

ARED - Associates in Research and Education for Development [Fr]

ARED a mis en œuvre un programme pédagogique bilingue dans des établissements scolaires élémentaires du Sénégal.

ARED - Associates in Research and Education for Development Senegal

Programme d’alphabétisation du Nord-Ouganda (Northern Uganda Literacy Program)

Ce programme est axé sur l’amélioration des compétences de lecture et d’écriture chez les élèves de la 1ère à la 3ème année d’enseignement primaire en utilisant la langue maternelle comme langue d’instruction.

Northern Uganda Literacy Program Uganda

Des Mondes en Devenir (Worlds in the Making

Consultez une étude de cas de Worlds in the Making, qui développe et teste des abécédaires trilingues auprès d’élèves dans le Punjab, au Pakistan.

Worlds in The Making Pakistan

Autres Programmes

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens ci-dessous pour voir les profils de programmes ayant recours à l'enseignement dans la Langue Maternelle

Mother-Tongue Education Project

The Mother Tongue Education (MTE) project seeks to increase meaningful access to primary education for marginalized children through advocacy, training, and development of resources to enable primary level instruction in students' mother tongue.
LABE and Africa Educational Trust Uganda
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Read-Learn-Lead

Institut pour l-Education Populaire (IEP)’s Read-Learn-Lead program provides students and teachers with structured lessons, activities, and materials for learning and instruction of early reading skills in the children’s mother language.
Institut pour l-Education Populaire Mali
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Speed Schools

The Stromme Foundation’s Speed School program provides out-of-school children in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso with an accelerated program to prepare for re-entry into the public school system, the first two months of which are taught in the mother tongue before transitioning to French.
Stromme Foundation
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Biblionef Book Donation Program

Biblionef donates books to under-resourced students and adults in 11 South African indigenous languages.
Biblionef South Africa
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eSchool360

eSchool360 aims to reinvent education in rural Zambia by providing a comprehensive, scaleable, and sustainable one-stop-shop "kit" for starting and running a school that incorporates e-learning and active learning. The curriculum, written by experienced Zambian teachers and available in English as well as eight local languages.
Impact Network Zambia
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Recherche

Étudiez les recherches et les analyses rigoureuses qui prouvent combien l’enseignement ciblé peut entraîner une amélioration des apprentissages.

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Mother Tongue and Reading: Using Early Grade Reading Assessments to Investigate Language-of-Instruction Policy in East Africa

In this study, the authors use EGRA to collect data on mother-tongue instruction in Kenya and Uganda and provide analysis of key trends.
Piper, B, and Miksic, E., 2011
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Blog Post: Children Learn Better in their Mother Tongue

This blog post summarizes current research on mother tongue-based education.
Ball, J. 2014
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Improving the Quality of Mother Tongue-based Literacy and Learning: Case Studies from Asia, Africa, and South America

This compilation of case studies from Asia, Africa, and South America identifies common themes among successful programs and emphasizes the importance of developing mother tongue materials and appropriate instructional methods.
UNESCO (2008)
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Language Issues in Comparative Education

This book discusses education for non-dominant language communities in relation to cultural and power issues, providing 15 chapters focused on different countries or regions.
Beson, C. and Kosonen, K., 2013
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Negotiating Intercultural Identities in the Multilingual Classroom

This paper, written with a North American audience in mind but also applicable elsewhere, argues that rejecting a student's primary language can have harmful effects on student self-perception and his or her academic success.
Cummins, J., 2000
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Language and Education: The Missing Link

This report for policymakers and donors discusses the key role of language of instruction in schooling for children in developing countries, especially in rural areas.
Save the Children
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The Effects of First-and-Second-Language Instruction in Rural South African Schools

The READ program in South Africa, which provided culturally relevant reading materials in the mother tongue and included an intensive teacher training and development component, found students in intervention schools to perform better than those in control schools.
Sailors et al., 2010
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The Importance of Mother Tongue-based Schooling for Educational Quality

This paper reviews the need for mother tongue-based bilingual education in developing countries and the kinds of policies and programs that have been introduced to support mother-tongue education.
Benson, C., 2004
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Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia

This compilation of seven case studies of mother tongue-based literacy programs in Asia identifies the impact of the projects, common challenges faced, and recommendations based on the experiences.
UNESCO (2007)
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First Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Priority Language Contexts in Asia

This report provides a summary of a workshop for community-based literacy programs utilizing the mother tongue, including tips on developing teaching/learning materials, on training facilitators, and on evaluating the program.
UNESCO (2005)
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Enhancing Learning of Children from Diverse Language Backgrounds: Mother Tongue-based Bilingual or Multilingual Education in the Early Years

This literature review provides an overview of mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education and recommends 1) raising awareness of the importance of mother tongue-based instruction, 2) supporting governments in promoting such programs, 3) recruiting teachers who are fluent in the language and providing pre-service and in-service teacher education, and 4) promoting policies that acknowledge parents as first teachers.
UNESCO, 2011
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Mother Tongue Matters: Local Language as a Key to Effective Learning

This report studies four case studies (Mali, Papua New Guinea, Peru, United States) of mother tongue-based bilingual education programs, identifying their potential to help improve children’s learning outcomes and challenges to successful implementation of such programs.
UNESCO (2008)
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Mother Tongue Education: Policy Lessons for Quality and Inclusion

This policy brief uses evidence from around the world to emphasize the importance of mother tongue-based education, which can lead to stronger literacy development and better learning outcomes in general.
Global Campaign for Education
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Mali Speed School Impact Evaluation: Summary Report

The Speed School program provided out-of-school children in Mali with an accelerated 9-month program to enable them to enter into primary school afterwards, the first two months of which were taught in the mother tongue before transitioning to French. An evaluation of the program found that it led to learning improvements in French and math.
IPA, 2015
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Early Reading: Igniting Education for All

This report reviews the state of early literacy in developing countries and outlines a number of recommendations, including putting in place language policies that support mother tongue instruction.
RTI International, 2010
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Policy Paper 24: If you don’t understand, how can you learn?

This policy paper, released for International Mother Language Day, argues that being taught in a language other than their own can negatively impact children’s learning. It shows the importance of teacher training and inclusive supporting materials to improve the learning experience of these children, and provide them with a resilient path of achievement in life.
UNESCO
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