• L’encadrement des enseignants diffère de la formation des maîtres : il s’agit d’un appui continu et individualisé apporté au perfectionnement des enseignants.
  • Les responsables de l’encadrement appuient les performances de l’enseignant en classe ainsi qu’à son développement professionnel.
  • Des revues systématiques ont permis de déterminer que l’encadrement des enseignants est une approche efficace pour améliorer les apprentissages dans les pays en développement.

Garantir que les responsables de l’encadrement des enseignants sont hautement compétents en matière d’encadrement et qu’ils sont supervisés et soutenus en permanence.1

L’encadrement est plus efficace et efficient lorsque les responsables de l’encadrement des enseignants ont reçu une préparation adéquate et savent entretenir une bonne interaction avec les enseignants et bâtir des relations positives avec eux. Parmi les principales qualités d’un bon chargé d’encadrement, l’on compte de solides compétences de leadership, de communication et interpersonnelles. Il est également souhaitable que les chargés d’encadrement possèdent de bonnes connaissances du contenu des cours et jouent un rôle de modèle positif. Lorsque les activités d’encadrement ont commencé, il est essentiel d’apporter une supervision et un soutien aux chargés d’encadrement afin d’assurer qu’ils obtiennent des résultats satisfaisants et répondent efficacement aux besoins des enseignants.

School-and-Cluster-based Teacher Professional Development: Bringing Teacher Learning to the Schools

This report highlights the importance of developing a strong relationship between coaches and teachers.
MacNeil, D.J., 2004
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The Power of Coaching: Improving Early Grade Reading Instruction in Developing Countries

This guide details the what makes an effective coach and the importance of preparation for coaching.
USAID, 2014
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Who is an OLE Ghana Coach?

Pages 3-4 of this guide describes the qualities of a good teacher coach.
OLE Ghana, 2013
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EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation Report - Training of Coaches

Page 16 of this evaluation highlights how it is important to train coaches in the same way as teachers.
USAID
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EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation - Supporting Coaches

Page 17 of this evaluation gives examples of how to provide support to coaches including having experts visit coaches once a semester and providing coaches with mobile phones so they can contact experts with specific questions.
USAID
View

Videos: Recherches en éducation

Des vidéos ont été réalisées à l'intention des intervenants scolaires du primaire et du secondaire afin de les soutenir dans les nombreuses décisions organisationnelles et pédagogiques qu'ils prennent au quotidien, à un rythme que nous savons très soutenu.
Éducation Québec
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Associer l’encadrement individuel et collectif.

L’encadrement peut revêtir des formes diverses, notamment le travail individuel avec les enseignants ou l’animation de discussions en groupe. L’encadrement est le plus efficace lorsqu’un programme associe des techniques individualisées et collectives, ce qui permet d’adapter le soutien aux besoins d’un enseignant particulier tout en permettant aux enseignants d’apprendre les uns des autres.

The Power of Coaching: Improving Early Grade Reading Instruction in Developing Countries - Technology

Pages 14-15 of this guide discusses the potential role of technology in supplementing coaching.
USAID (2014)
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Primary Math and Reading Program (PRIMR)

Learn about the Primary Reading and Math program (PRIMR), which seeks to improve quality of learning in early primary years in Kenya and uses tablets as part of its approach to teacher coaching.
RTI International Kenya
View

Distance Education for Teacher Training: Modes, Models, and Methods

Chapter 7 (Mobile Technologies for Distance Learning) starting on page 107 highlights the ways in which various devices can be used in initial teacher training and follow-up support; also notes the limitations of mobile technologies for distance teacher training.
Education Development Center, Inc., 2011
View

EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation - Supporting Coaches

Page 17 of this evaluation gives examples of how to provide support to coaches including having experts visit coaches once a semester and providing coaches with mobile phones so they can contact experts with specific questions.
USAID
View

School-and-Cluster-based Teacher Professional Development: Bringing Teacher Learning to the Schools

The authors review the literature on in-service teacher professional development programs and identify the factors common to effective programs, which include matching to students’ and teachers’ needs, and collaborating with the school staff and community in designing the program.
MacNeil, D.J., 2004
View

EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation Report - Training of Coaches

Page 16 of this evaluation highlights how it is important to train coaches in the same way as teachers.
USAID
View

Offrir des outils qui permettent aux chargés d’encadrement et aux enseignants de faire ensemble le suivi des performances des enseignants.

Il serait souhaitable que l’encadrement réponde aux besoins spécifiques de l’enseignant et de l’école. Il faudrait aussi que les enseignants et les chargés d’encadrement utilisent systématiquement les outils d’observation et d’évaluation aux fins d’évaluer les performances initiales des enseignants, de déterminer des domaines à améliorer, d’élaborer un plan d’amélioration dans ces domaines et de faire un suivi des progrès dans ce sens au fil du temps.

The Power of Coaching: Improving Early Grade Reading Instruction in Developing Countries - Technology

Pages 14-15 of this guide discusses the potential role of technology in supplementing coaching.
USAID (2014)
View

Primary Math and Reading Program (PRIMR)

Learn about the Primary Reading and Math program (PRIMR), which seeks to improve quality of learning in early primary years in Kenya and uses tablets as part of its approach to teacher coaching.
RTI International Kenya
View

Distance Education for Teacher Training: Modes, Models, and Methods

Chapter 7 (Mobile Technologies for Distance Learning) starting on page 107 highlights the ways in which various devices can be used in initial teacher training and follow-up support; also notes the limitations of mobile technologies for distance teacher training.
Education Development Center, Inc., 2011
View

Teacher Needs Assessment

This report details features of teacher needs assessments conducted by Educational Initiatives.
Educational Initiatives, 2010
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EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation Report - Observation and tracking tools

Pages 16-17 describe how this project provided coaches with logs to track teacher performance as well as classroom observation tools.
USAID (2010) Liberia
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Teacher Classroom Observation Checklist

This tool, developed for and currently being piloted by the East Africa Quality in Early Learning Project, allows observers to record a teacher's ability to prepare students for a lesson, manage a classroom, and facilitate learning.
Aga Khan Foundation
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How to write a supervision checklist

Guide and template for writing checklists to assess an individual's performance (e.g. that of a teacher, discussion group leader, etc).
tools4dev
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Parent Education Programs for Early Childhood Education

Page 174 of this report discusses how it is important to engage with parents in a non-threatening context.
Jessica Baker (2004)
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Classroom Observation Tools

This resource provides classroom observation forms, checklists for positive teaching behaviors, and guidelines for observers. The tools can be used by coaches to assess and share feedback with teachers.
USAID, 2003
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Le simplexe en diaporama

Deux simplexes pour analyser l'action enseignante.
Institut Francais de L'Education
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Accompagner les Enseignants Debutants

Comparaison de trois modélisations des invariants de la pratique pour envisager différents accompagnements d’enseignants débutants selon des objectifs clairement identifiés.
CRDP Lorraine
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Les Postures Enseignantes

Les postures, manières langagières et cognitives de s'emparer d'une tâche.
Institut Francais de L'Education
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Grille d'Analyse d'une Sequence d’Apprentissage

Grille d'Analyse d'une Sequence d’Apprentissage
Site de Philippe Meirieu
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Grille d'Observation de SÉANCE

Une approche globale de l'observation en classe , y compris les questions de guidage et d'un modèle d'évaluation.
PedagoNet.com
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Il est souhaitable que les chargés d’encadrement utilisent des supports visuels et des activités lorsqu’ils travaillent avec les enseignants.

Il est recommandé d’utiliser des outils et supports visuels simples, de préférence adaptés au contexte local, pour travailler avec les enseignants, compte tenu des barrières linguistiques possibles et des faibles niveaux d’instruction des enseignants. Les vidéos peuvent contribuer à montrer aux enseignants comment réaliser une activité particulière.

Videos: Techniques for Effective Teaching

These videos, designed for low-cost private schools in Ghana, provide guidance for child-centered, interactive teaching and learing practices in low-resource settings.
IDP Foundation, 2014
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School Support and Development and District Partnership Project

Learn about this program, which develops in-service training and coaching models for under-resourced and under-performing schools in South Africa and emphasizes the utility of visual tools, including videos, in coaching.
Pearson MARANG Education Trust
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Techniques for Effective Teaching

This teacher guide leads teachers through several approaches to improving instruction, including teacher reflection and planning exercises on topics including teaching with low-cost resources, pupil-centered learning, time management, etc. The modules are aligned to the videos also provided in this section.
IDP Foundation, 2014
View

Le simplexe en diaporama

Deux simplexes pour analyser l'action enseignante.
Institut Francais de L'Education
View

Videos: Recherches en éducation

Des vidéos ont été réalisées à l'intention des intervenants scolaires du primaire et du secondaire afin de les soutenir dans les nombreuses décisions organisationnelles et pédagogiques qu'ils prennent au quotidien, à un rythme que nous savons très soutenu.
Éducation Québec
View

Accompagner les Enseignants Debutants

Comparaison de trois modélisations des invariants de la pratique pour envisager différents accompagnements d’enseignants débutants selon des objectifs clairement identifiés.
CRDP Lorraine
View

Analyse de la littérature: Le personnel d’éducation et protection de la petite enfance (EPPE) dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen

Une analyse des enseignants préscolaires dans les pays à faibles revenus.
Neuman, M., Josephson K., & Chua P. G., 2015
View

Le Jeu des Trois Figures en Classe Maternelle

Cette vidéo donne un exemple novateur de la façon d'engager les jeunes enfants dans l'apprentissage émotionnel.
Federation Wallonie-Bruxelles
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La technologie pourrait soutenir efficacement les programmes d’encadrement.5

La technologie (vidéos, tablettes et Skype) peut être utile pour accroître la fréquence des interactions entre enseignants et chargés d’encadrement, tout en réduisant simultanément les coûts. Toutefois, des recherches complémentaires sont nécessaires pour faire la preuve des incidences positives de la technologie en matière d’encadrement.

The Power of Coaching: Improving Early Grade Reading Instruction in Developing Countries - Technology

Pages 14-15 of this guide discusses the potential role of technology in supplementing coaching.
USAID (2014)
View

Primary Math and Reading Program (PRIMR)

Learn about the Primary Reading and Math program (PRIMR), which seeks to improve quality of learning in early primary years in Kenya and uses tablets as part of its approach to teacher coaching.
RTI International Kenya
View

Distance Education for Teacher Training: Modes, Models, and Methods

Chapter 7 (Mobile Technologies for Distance Learning) starting on page 107 highlights the ways in which various devices can be used in initial teacher training and follow-up support; also notes the limitations of mobile technologies for distance teacher training.
Education Development Center, Inc., 2011
View

Former les Enseignants au XXIE Siecle

Au-delà des particularités liées à chacun des pays, l’enjeu est d’organiser une réflexion collective sur l’étude de la professionnalité des formateurs, des tuteurs, des conseillers pédagogiques et de leur rôle dans l’accompagnement des enseignants en formation initiale et continue. L’enjeu étant de définir des référentiels d’activités pour ces nouveaux cadres intermédiaires partageant des fonctions d’enseignement et de formation au sein d’un établissement, d’une circonscription, d’une académie.
UNESCO
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Programmes d’encadrement des enseignants

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens ci-dessous pour voir les profils de programmes ayant recours à l’encadrement des enseignants dans leur travail.

Education Beyond Borders

Education Beyond Borders developed a teacher training model that focuses on learner-centered methods
Education Beyond Borders
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Health and Literacy Intervention

The Health and Literacy Intervention aimed to improve the health and learning outcomes in communities off the coast of Kenya. Part of the initiative included teacher training, the development of 140 semi-scripted lesson plans, and text message support throughout the academic year.
Health and Literacy Intervention Project Kenya
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Primary Math and Reading Program (PRIMR)

The Primary Reading and Math program, which seeks to improve quality of learning in early primary years in Kenya, places great emphasis on training teachers, with coaches and tutors modeling best practices, observing lessons, and providing feedback to teachers.
RTI International
View

School Support and Development and District Partnership Project

This program develops in-service training and coaching models for under-resourced and under-performing schools in South Africa.
Pearson MARANG Education Trust
View

Étudiez les recherches et les analyses rigoureuses qui prouvent combien l’encadrement des enseignants peut améliorer la qualité des apprentissages.

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Early Reading: Igniting Education for All

This report reviews the state of early literacy in developing countries and outlines a number of recommendations, including putting in place language policies that support mother tongue instruction.
RTI International, 2010
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Pedagogy, Curriculum, Teaching Practices and Teacher Education in Developing Countries

This literature review recommends six effective teaching practices in developing country contexts, as well as four ways in which teacher education can best support instruction and learning, including targeted and sustained professional development.
EPPI-Centre, Institute of Education & University of London, 2013
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School-and-Cluster-based Teacher Professional Development: Bringing Teacher Learning to the Schools

The authors review the literature on in-service teacher professional development programs and identify the factors common to effective programs, which include matching to students’ and teachers’ needs, and collaborating with the school staff and community in designing the program.
MacNeil, D.J., 2004
View

Where It's Needed Most: Quality Professional Development for All Teachers

This guide highlights the need for, and recommendations for strengthening, teacher development in fragile and conflict-affected states.
Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies, 2015
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Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature

From an examination of teacher training (focused mainly in the United States), this book offers several recommendations for effective and sustainable professional development, which, the authors argue, should be a long-term process that begins with pre-service training and continues throughout a teacher’s career.
UNESCO, 2003
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Teacher Professional Learning and Development

This booklet provides a list of general best practices in teacher professional learning and development that have positive impacts on student learning outcomes.
International Bureau of Education
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Review: Teacher Support and Development Interventions

This review emphasizes the importance of continuing professional development, rather than “disjointed one-off courses,” and identifies trends among effective teacher support and development interventions in low-income countries.
Save the Children
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The Effects of First-and-Second-Language Instruction in Rural South African Schools

The READ program in South Africa, which provided culturally relevant reading materials in the mother tongue and included an intensive teacher training and development component, found students in intervention schools to perform better than those in control schools.
Sailors et al., 2010
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The Power of Coaching

This report provides an overview of the literature on teacher coaching in developing countries and recommendations for best practice.
USAID (2014)
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EGRA Plus: Liberia Program Evaluation Report

This evaluation of a program that provided intensive teacher training in formative assessment found that treatment group students saw dramatic increases in all sections of the EGRA.
USAID, 2010
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Identifying Effective Education Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of rigorous impact evaluations

From a meta-analysis of dozens of education interventions, Conn finds pedagogical interventions or teacher training— “programs that affect the method(s) of instruction and learning”— have the greatest pooled effect size; and effective teacher training programs involved sustained, individualized teacher coaching.
Conn, K. 2014
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What Really Works to Improve Learning Outcomes in Developing Countries?

In a systematic review of six systematic reviews that evaluate interventions to improve learning outcomes in the developing world, the authors find that “individualized, repeated teacher training” is one type of intervention that is frequently recommended.
World Bank Group, 2015
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Research Brief: Evaluating strategies to improve early grade reading on the Kenyan Coast

A program in Kenya strengthening literacy instruction in early primary school through teacher training and text message support was found to improve student reading skills. A buddy reading program also resulted in small improvements in student attitudes towards reading.
Health and Literacy Intervention Project, 2015
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